$130,000 for an 8-foot-by-8-foot shed? That's what L.A. is paying in a bid to house the homeless
By DOUG SMITHSENIOR WRITER
DEC. 12, 20206 AM upxeD5:51 PM

6平米13萬美元,這是洛杉磯為安置流浪漢報出的簡易房費用


Karen Morea, 62, hugs her dog, Jack-Jack, inside her “tiny home” in a parking lot in Riverside. She has been there almost two months after living on the streets.
(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

洛杉磯河濱市一處停車場的“迷你屋”里,62歲的凱倫·莫雷拉正抱著她的狗杰克杰克。之前她已經在街頭流浪兩個月了



A resident of a tiny home village walks to the common shower area.
(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

安置區一位居民正步行前往公共浴池






Karen Morea walks back to her unit in the tiny home village in a parking lot adjacent to a Riverside shelter.(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

凱倫·莫雷正走回她的住所。

“It seems unimaginable to me that two adults with their own lives can share that space reasonably,” said Shayla Myers, an attorney for the Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles, which is intervening in the lawsuit on behalf of homeless people.

洛杉磯法律援助基金會的律師沙拉·邁爾斯表示:“在我看來,兩個有自己生活的成年人若想合理地分享屋子里的空間,這似乎是不可想象的?!痹摶饡頍o家可歸者介入了這起訴訟。


“It’s such an example of why we’re in this mess in Los Angeles,” said Elizabeth A. Mitchell, an attorney representing the group, the LA Alliance for Human Rights. “They do these massive projects that are so cost prohibitive, and they only provide beds for a few people while others are degrading in the streets.”

對于起訴一方,一個由企業主和住民組成的聯盟來說,成本是更大的問題。這就是為什么我們在洛杉磯陷入這種混亂的一個例子,”洛杉磯人權聯盟代理律師伊麗莎白·a·米切爾說?!八麄冏龅倪@些成本高昂的大型項目,只解決了少數人住所問題,而其他更多的人仍不得不街頭露宿?!?



Mike Feuer says the city did everything it could to reduce the cost.(Gary Coronado / Los Angeles Times)

邁克·弗瑞爾表示市政府盡一切努力降低成本

Feuer said the city did everything it could to reduce the cost, “but not at the expense of safety and hygiene, or of greater overall costs.” The city has relaxed building code requirements for storm water runoff and parking, reduced the required ratio of bathrooms to bedrooms, and allowed tighter spacing of the structures, he said.

費爾表示,市政府會盡一切可能降低成本,“但不能以安全與衛生,或出現更大的總成本為代價”。他說,河濱市放寬了對下水和停車的建筑要求規范,減少了衛生間與臥室的比例,并允許更緊密的建筑間距。

The city also shortened the development time by purchasing the structures without competitive bidding from a Washington state company called Pallet, which has supplied personal shelters equipped with heat and air conditioning to several other California cities.

該市從華盛頓州一家名為帕勒(Pallet)的公司購買了這些建筑,繼而縮短了開發時間,不過這家公司向加州幾個城市提供的是配有暖氣和空調僅可入住一人的庇護所。

Yet at about $8,600 each, the price tag for the individual shelters accounted for only a small fraction of the overall cost.

即使這樣,每個房屋價格僅約為8 600美元,僅占總費用的一小部分。


It also includes $122,000 for underground utilities, $253,000 for concrete pads (one for each shelter), $312,000 for an administrative office and staff restroom, $1.1 million for mechanical, electrical and fire alarms and $280,000 for permits and fees.

除此之外還包括地下水電費12.2萬美元,混凝土墊層25.3萬美元,行政辦公室和員工休息室31.2萬美元,機械、電氣和火災報警器110萬美元,以及28萬美元的許可費用。

Additionally, the city has budgeted $651,000 to connect to the street sewer line and $546,000 in design, project management and inspection costs.

另,市政府提供65.1萬美元用于下水道管網連接,其中54.6萬美元用于設計、項目管理以及巡檢費用。


Rick Cole, a former Ventura city manager, says the tiny home is a “good and modest idea done the way the Pentagon would to it.”(Al Seib / Los Angeles Times)

前文圖拉市市執行長里克·科爾(Rick Cole)認為,建造迷你住宅是“一個不錯、妥當的想法,就像五角大樓所希望的那樣?!?

Former Ventura and Santa Monica City Manager Rick Cole, who served two years as Garcetti’s deputy mayor for budget and innovation, said the city faced a paradox of “nice to haves” vs. “need to haves.”

前文圖拉和圣塔莫尼卡市執行長里克·科爾(Rick Cole)曾任洛杉磯副市長負責預算和創新,他說,這座城市面臨著“善待富人”與“需要富人付出”的矛盾。

“There is no ‘waste’ here, just a good and modest idea done the way the Pentagon would do it,” Cole said in an email after reviewing an itemization of the costs for the Chandler tiny home project in North Hollywood. The Pentagon, of course, is infamous for expensive overengineering.

“這里不存在‘浪費’,只是一個不錯、妥當的想法,就像五角大樓所希望的那樣,”科爾在查看了錢德勒在北好萊塢微型住宅項目的成本明細后,在一封電子郵件中寫到。當然,五角大樓常以高昂且過分的設計要求而臭名遠揚。

Noting that site preparation includes demolition, clearing, grading, paving, walkways, landscaping, K-rails, fencing, security guard booth and design fees, he said the city could “cut it in half and you’d have a noticeably less nice, but still serviceable development.

他指出,安置區場地準備工作包括拆除、清理、平整、鋪路、人行道、景觀美化、k形欄桿、圍欄、保安亭和設計費,他說,這座城市可能“把它去掉一半,你會看到一個不那么明顯漂亮,但仍然可用的開發項目?!?

“Someone has to make a decision on the trade-offs of whether you are going to have safe and decent housing with these features all built in for a few people or a stripped-down version for more people,” he said.

他說:“必須面面俱到權衡利弊,其決定到底是為了少數人提供安全、體面的住房,還是為更多人有房可住?!?

Others that have purchased shelters from the Washington company got their tiny home villages up and running more quickly and at far less cost by stripping the plans to the minimum.

其他從華盛頓公司購買簡易房的人,通過項目情況進行配置,使他們的安置區更快地運轉起來,而且成本要低得多。

On Jan.14, the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors decided to set up a temporary shelter for a group of homeless people camped beside a county trail.

1月14日,索諾瑪縣監事會決定為一群在縣步行道旁露宿的無家可歸者設立一個臨時住所。

“Pallet shelters are so easy to construct, to get on site,” said Caroline Judy, director of general services. “Pallet was a great partner. They brought out a team, many who had experienced homelessness, worked really well with our team. We created a village in 11 days.”
The cost was $21,817 per cabin, Judy said.

總務處處長卡羅琳·朱迪表示:“臨時安置區很容易建造,也很容易安裝?!薄芭晾帐且粋€很好的合作伙伴。他們組建了一個團隊,很多人都有過無家可歸的經歷,他們和我們的團隊合作得非常好。我們在11天內建完了一個安置區?!懊總€小屋的成本是21817美元每小屋,朱蒂說道。

Alarmed by a death on the city’s mini skid row, Riverside Mayor Rusty Bailey bought one shelter from Pallet, set it up in the parking lot next to the city’s homeless shelter and moved in.

由于擔心城市發生類似小型貧民窟出現的死亡事件,河濱市市長拉斯蒂·貝利出資建了一個臨時安置區,把它設在該市無家可歸者收容所旁的停車場,然后讓人們住進去。


“It was an adventure,” he said. “It obviously informed my thinking.”

“這是一次冒險,”不過他認為?!斑@顯然啟發了我的思考?!?

He found the space livable, providing a “sense of ownership and security” that doesn’t exist in congregate shelters and would be sacrificed with both bunks in use.

他發現這里比較適合居住,有一種“歸屬感和安全感”,而且這種歸屬感和安全感是聚集在一個庇護所里所不具有的,因此如果屋子里的兩個床位都能用,這種感覺就沒有了。

The City Council voted last Dec. 17 to purchase 30 shelters. The village opened March 13, at a total cost of $512,000 — just over $17,000 per shelter.

該市議會去年12月17日投票決定購買30個簡易房。安置區3月13日開放,總成本為51.2萬美元——每個簡易房的成本略超于1.7萬美元。


Except for couples, the two-bed units have only one occupant each and will stay that way even without COVID-19 restrictions.

除了夫妻外,房子里只允許住一個人,即使沒有新冠法令問題,也必須遵守這一規定。

Bailey said a sense of ownership and security contributes to the mental stability homeless people need to move forward.

貝利表示,擁有歸屬感和安全感有助于無家可歸的人保持精神穩定進而樂觀向上。


Karen Morea stands outside her tiny home, where she has put up holiday decorations.(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

站在小房子外面的凱倫·莫瑞亞,她在這里布置節日裝飾



She tried the shelter but didn’t adapt to being closed in with other people.

她試過去收容所住,不過和他人生活在一個封閉的空間里讓她很不適應。

“I’m way claustrophobic,” she said. But she said she could stay in the Pallet shelter.

“我有幽閉恐懼癥,”。不過她認為自己可以住在簡陋的棚子里。

“Yeah, if they’ll have me. It’s wonderful.”

“是的,如果他們讓我去住。那就太好了?!?

Her neighbor, Carlos Beltran, 35, keeps more spartan quarters with the second bunk latched up and only a few cleaning supplies on the floor.

莫瑞亞的鄰居、35歲的卡洛斯·貝爾特蘭住的房間比較簡樸,里面的第二張床被封上了,地板上只放了一些清潔用品。

He said he is working his way back to God after bad decisions left him with nothing but a broken-down car. He now has a job and a working car and is hoping to get established with a religious community.

貝爾特蘭說,之前因為做出了一個錯誤的決定,除了她那一輛拋錨的汽車,他一無所有,當時他只想回到上帝的身邊。不過現在他有了一份工作和一輛工作用車,并期望能在一個宗教社區力建立自己的家庭。


Carlos Beltran stands outside his residence in the tiny home village in Riverside.(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

卡洛斯·貝爾特蘭站在他河濱市安置區里的住所外面

“I just needed a little help,” he said.

“我只是需要一點點幫助,”他說到。

Riverside is typical of other government agencies using the Pallet shelters. They are installed quickly, at low cost, and are being used as singles, even if they have multiple beds.

在使用簡易庇護所方面,河濱市可以說是其他政府機構的參照標準。這些東西安裝速度快,成本低,可用作單人房,即使里面可以安裝多個床位。

For what it calls its Stability Site, the city of Tacoma, Wash., purchased 58 shelters with two bunk beds each for four occupants. But it’s only using one. The city spent $700,000 to set it up, which works out to about $12,000 per shelter, less than one-tenth the cost of L.A.'s tiny homes.

對于所謂的安穩設置,比如華盛頓州的塔科馬市。他們買了58個簡易房,每個簡易房里設有兩張雙層床,可供四個人使用。但只許使用一個床位。這座城市花費了70萬美元來建立安置區,其里面每個簡易房相當于耗費1.2萬美元,只有不到洛杉磯成本的十分之一。

“One of the appeals to the Pallet shelter is for someone to have their own space,” said Erica Azcueta, program manager for homelessness and household stability. “When we set up the Stability Site, some individuals had been homeless for a long time, over a decade. Providing that single space for them really improves the
likelihood of having them ready for permanent housing.”

無家可歸及家庭安定項目經理艾麗卡·阿茲庫塔表示:“這種簡陋小屋的一個好處是不會讓人們露宿街頭?!薄爱斘覀冊诮ü潭ò仓脜^的時候,有人已經流浪在外很長時間,甚至有的已經十年了。為他們提供單獨的空間,真的能提高他們為永久居住做好準備的可能性?!?

In Santa Cruz, the nonprofit Housing Matters set up 10 shelters in a day in the parking lot of its two-acre campus that includes a family shelter and transitional housing, along with a dining hall and restrooms.

在圣克魯茲,非營利住房事務組織,他們一天之內在占地兩英畝(約合10公頃)的校園停車場內搭建了10個安置房,其中包括一個家庭簡易房和幾間臨時性住房,以及一個餐廳和衛生間。

“They delivered,” said Tom Stagg, director of the program. “We stayed out of the way. They got them set up.”

項目負責人湯姆·斯塔格(Tom Stagg)說到:“我們做到了?!薄拔覀兂晒α?。他們有去處了?!?

The two-bed option is not being used, either.

兩人同住的選擇仍沒被允許。


Pioneered in Seattle several years ago, the idea of replacing homeless camps with villages of miniature shelters began as a nonprofit enterprise with citizen participation.

幾年前在西雅圖率先提出的用微型安置區取代無家可歸者營地的想法,始于一家有公民參與的非營利性企業。


Combining public and private funds, the nonprofit now manages 550 tiny homes in villages on public property, private property and church property around the Seattle area. It costs from $300,000 to $500,000 to set up 40 or 50 homes, depending on the sewer connection, Lee said. Portable toilets initially used have been replaced by permanent bathrooms and showers.

根據城市法規, 120平方英尺及以下的建筑不需要許可,她的組織為教堂和志愿者組織提供設計和材料,每個小屋成本約為2700美元,由其成員建造。

The villages function as communities, with residents all performing chores and, at some, taking part in self-governance.

這家非營利組織結合了公共和私人資金,目前在西雅圖地區管理著550套由公共、私人以及教堂出資建成的小房子。李說,根據下水管道連接方式的不同,建造40到50個屋子需要30萬至50萬美元。最初使用的移動廁所已經被永久性的衛生間和浴室所替代。

Seattle’s citizen-driven model never got traction in Los Angeles.

西雅圖市民自發行動未在洛杉磯得到過關注。

When a self-styled homeless activist started delivering hand-made tiny homes to people living on the streets, the city ruled the structures illegal and quickly stamped out the movement.

比如曾有一名自稱無家可歸的活動人士開始向露宿街頭的人們提供人工搭建的小房子時,當時市政府裁定這種建筑是非法的,并迅速取締了這一活動。